Immigration court proceedings in the United States can be complex and challenging to navigate, especially for individuals facing the threat of removal from the country. As an experienced immigration and criminal defense attorney practicing in New York and New Jersey, I have encountered various cases involving removal proceedings and appeals. In this article, I will provide a comprehensive overview of immigration court proceedings, focusing on key aspects such as relief from deportation, appeals, and the legal framework governing these processes.

Understanding the Basics

Citizenship and Green Card

Before delving into removal proceedings, it is crucial to grasp the fundamental concepts of citizenship and lawful permanent residency, often referred to as a “Green Card.”

  • Citizenship: Citizenship grants individuals the highest level of legal status in the United States, providing them with the right to live and work in the country indefinitely. It can be acquired through birth, naturalization, or derivative citizenship.
  • Green Card: A Green Card is evidence of an individual’s lawful permanent residency in the U.S. It allows non-citizens to live and work in the country, and it is typically obtained through family sponsorship, employment, refugee/asylee status, or other qualifying categories.

Removal Proceedings

When individuals with non-citizen status face potential deportation, they become parties to removal proceedings. These proceedings are conducted in immigration court and follow specific legal procedures.

Grounds for Removal

Several grounds can lead to an individual’s initiation of removal proceedings, including:

  1. Criminal Convictions: Certain criminal convictions can render non-citizens deportable, especially if they involve crimes of moral turpitude, aggravated felonies, or drug offenses.
  2. Visa Violations: Overstaying a visa or failing to maintain valid immigration status can result in removal proceedings.
  3. Fraud or Misrepresentation: Providing false information or fraudulent documentation to immigration authorities can lead to removal.

Relief from Deportation

Relief from deportation, also known as “remedies,” offers avenues for individuals to avoid removal. Common forms of relief include:

  • Asylum and Withholding of Removal: These options are available to individuals who fear persecution or harm in their home countries.
  • Cancellation of Removal: Eligible individuals must demonstrate substantial physical presence in the U.S., good moral character, and exceptional hardship to a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident family member.
  • Adjustment of Status: Some individuals may be eligible to adjust their status to that of a lawful permanent resident if they have an immediate relative who is a U.S. citizen or employer sponsorship.
  • Voluntary Departure: In some cases, individuals may be allowed to depart the U.S. voluntarily, which can have fewer long-term consequences than a removal order.


If a judge issues an unfavorable decision in removal proceedings, individuals have the right to appeal. The appeal process involves presenting the case to a higher authority, often the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) or, in some cases, the federal courts.

Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA)

The BIA reviews decisions made by immigration judges and decides whether to uphold, reverse, or remand the case. It is essential to adhere to strict deadlines and procedures when filing an appeal with the BIA.

Federal Courts

If an individual disagrees with the BIA’s decision or believes that their constitutional rights have been violated, they can further appeal to the federal courts, starting with the U.S. Court of Appeals.

Legal Framework

To navigate immigration court proceedings effectively, it is essential to understand the legal framework that governs them. Key laws and regulations include:

  • Immigration and Nationality Act (INA): The INA is the primary federal statute governing immigration law in the United States. It contains provisions related to immigration, deportation, and various forms of relief.
  • Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): The CFR provides detailed regulations that expand on the provisions of the INA, offering guidance on various aspects of immigration law.
  • Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) Practice Manual: This manual outlines the procedures and practices followed by the BIA in hearing and reviewing cases.


Immigration court proceedings and appeals are complex and require a comprehensive understanding of immigration law. Navigating these processes successfully often necessitates the expertise of an experienced immigration attorney. As someone who has practiced immigration and criminal defense law in New York and New Jersey, I emphasize the importance of seeking legal counsel to protect one’s rights and explore all available avenues for relief from deportation. Remember, knowledge and preparation are crucial when dealing with immigration court proceedings and appeals.

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