Requirements to Become a U.S. Citizen


  1. Introduction
  2. Understanding Citizenship
  3. Eligibility Criteria
    • Residency Requirements
    • Age Requirement
    • Good Moral Character
    • Knowledge of English and Civics
    • Oath of Allegiance
  4. Application Process
  5. Naturalization Test
  6. Interview
  7. Conclusion
  8. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


Becoming a U.S. citizen is a significant milestone for many immigrants, offering rights, responsibilities, and opportunities. However, the path to citizenship involves meeting specific requirements outlined by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

Understanding Citizenship

Citizenship signifies membership in a political community, entailing both rights and duties. In the United States, citizenship grants individuals the right to vote, run for public office, and obtain a U.S. passport, among other privileges.

Eligibility Criteria

Residency Requirements

One of the primary requirements for U.S. citizenship is lawful permanent residency, commonly known as having a Green Card. Applicants must have resided continuously in the U.S. for a specific period, typically five years, before applying for naturalization.

Age Requirement

Applicants must be at least 18 years old at the time of filing the naturalization application.

Good Moral Character

USCIS evaluates an applicant’s moral character, which includes factors such as criminal history, tax compliance, and adherence to U.S. laws.

Knowledge of English and Civics

Applicants must demonstrate proficiency in the English language, including reading, writing, and speaking. They must also pass a civics test, showcasing their knowledge of U.S. history and government.

Oath of Allegiance

Before becoming a U.S. citizen, applicants must take the Oath of Allegiance, swearing allegiance to the United States and renouncing allegiance to any foreign country.

Application Process

The naturalization process begins with submitting Form N-400, Application for Naturalization, to USCIS. Along with the form, applicants must provide supporting documents and pay the required fees.

Naturalization Test

The naturalization test assesses an applicant’s understanding of English and civics. The English portion includes an oral interview to test speaking and comprehension skills. The civics portion consists of questions about U.S. history and government.


After submitting the application, applicants attend an interview with a USCIS officer. During the interview, the officer reviews the application, verifies information, and tests the applicant’s English and civics knowledge.


Becoming a U.S. citizen is a significant achievement that offers rights, privileges, and responsibilities. By meeting the requirements outlined by USCIS, individuals can embark on the journey to citizenship and fully participate in American society.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. How long does it take to become a U.S. citizen?
    • The naturalization process timeline varies but typically takes around 6 to 12 months from application submission to oath ceremony.
  2. Can I apply for citizenship if I have a criminal record?
    • Having a criminal record may affect your eligibility for citizenship. USCIS evaluates each case individually, considering factors such as the type of offense and rehabilitation efforts.
  3. Do I need a lawyer to apply for citizenship?
    • While not required, some applicants choose to work with immigration lawyers to navigate the naturalization process, especially if they have complex cases or concerns.
  4. What happens if I fail the naturalization test?
    • If you fail the test, you will have the opportunity to retake it. USCIS allows applicants to retest on the failed portions within 60 to 90 days after the initial interview.
  5. Can I become a U.S. citizen if I don’t speak English well?
    • Proficiency in English is a requirement for citizenship, but USCIS provides accommodations and exemptions for certain individuals, such as those with disabilities or elderly applicants.