In the complex and ever-evolving landscape of immigration law, certain legal battles have played a pivotal role in shaping the jurisprudence governing deportation relief. One such area of contention revolves around the 212(c) waiver, a provision of immigration law that has seen significant litigation and reform over the years.

In this article, I will delve into the world of immigration law, using my experience as an immigration and criminal defense attorney in New York and New Jersey, to explore how landmark cases have influenced the application and interpretation of the 212(c) waiver.

Understanding the Basics

Defining Citizenship and the Green Card

Before delving into the specifics of the 212(c) waiver, it’s essential to establish a foundational understanding of citizenship and the Green Card.

Before discussing the nuances of the 212(c) waiver, it’s crucial to grasp the fundamental concepts of citizenship and the Green Card. Citizenship refers to the legal status of belonging to a particular country, granting individuals certain rights and responsibilities. On the other hand, the Green Card, also known as the Permanent Resident Card, is an official document issued to non-citizen immigrants that allows them to live and work permanently in the United States.

Technical Concepts:

  1. Citizenship: The legal status of being a member of a specific country, entitling individuals to certain rights and obligations.
  2. Green Card: An official document, also known as the Permanent Resident Card, issued to non-citizen immigrants, granting them the right to permanently reside and work in the United States.


  • Citizenship refers to an individual’s legal status as a member of a particular nation, conferring upon them certain rights and responsibilities.
  • U.S. citizenship grants the right to live and work in the United States without the fear of deportation.
  • Citizenship is the legal status that identifies an individual as a member of a specific country, granting them certain rights and responsibilities. For instance, being a U.S. citizen allows individuals to reside and work in the United States without the concern of being forced to leave the country.
  • In addition to the information provided, it is also worth noting that citizenship can be acquired through various means, such as birth, descent, naturalization, or marriage. It is not limited to just the country one is born in, but can also be obtained through other legal processes depending on the laws of that nation.

Green Card:

  • A Green Card, formally known as a Permanent Resident Card, signifies an individual’s status as a lawful permanent resident of the United States.
  • Green Card holders are authorized to live and work in the United States indefinitely, subject to certain conditions and restrictions.

The 212(c) Waiver: An Overview

The 212(c) waiver, found in Section 212(c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), was historically a vital relief provision for certain lawful permanent residents facing deportation due to criminal convictions. This waiver allowed eligible individuals to seek relief from deportation based on their equities and ties to the United States.

Types of Relief from Deportation

Before delving into the legal battles surrounding the 212(c) waiver, it’s essential to understand the various forms of relief available to immigrants facing deportation.

  1. Cancellation of Removal:
    • This form of relief is available to both lawful permanent residents and non-permanent residents.
    • It allows an individual to avoid deportation by demonstrating continuous presence in the U.S. for a specific period and establishing certain other eligibility criteria.
  2. Asylum and Withholding of Removal:
    • These forms of relief are available to individuals who fear persecution in their home countries.
    • Asylum provides protection to those who fear persecution based on factors like race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group.
  3. Adjustment of Status:
    • Adjustment of status allows certain eligible immigrants to become lawful permanent residents and eventually U.S. citizens.
    • It is often sought by family members of U.S. citizens and Green Card holders.

Landmark Cases Shaping 212(c) Waiver Jurisprudence

Matter of St. Cyr (2001)

In Matter of St. Cyr, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that certain lawful permanent residents, including those with criminal convictions, could still seek the 212(c) waiver despite the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) of 1996. This decision had a profound impact on immigration law by preserving relief options for many individuals.

Padilla v. Kentucky (2010)

Padilla v. Kentucky was a crucial case that highlighted the importance of providing accurate and comprehensive legal advice to non-citizen defendants. The Supreme Court held that criminal defense attorneys must inform their clients about the immigration consequences of guilty pleas, underscoring the interconnectedness of criminal and immigration law.

Moncrieffe v. Holder (2013)

Moncrieffe v. Holder clarified that not all drug offenses necessarily lead to deportation. The case distinguished between “simple possession” and “drug trafficking” offenses, emphasizing that only the latter could result in removal proceedings. This decision helped protect non-citizens with minor drug convictions.


In the intricate realm of immigration law, the 212(c) waiver has been a subject of significant legal battles that have shaped the way we understand relief from deportation. Through landmark cases like Matter of St. Cyr, Padilla v. Kentucky, and Moncrieffe v. Holder, the landscape of immigration jurisprudence has evolved, providing crucial safeguards for lawful permanent residents facing deportation due to criminal convictions. As an immigration attorney with experience in New York and New Jersey, I have witnessed firsthand the profound impact of these cases on the lives of my clients, underscoring the importance of a robust and dynamic immigration legal system.

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